Sense of Community Index

The Sense of Community Index (SCI) is the measure most frequently used in the social sciences to gauge a sense of community. The SCI has been used in numerous studies within different cultures in North and South America, Asia, the Middle East, as well as many contexts (e.g., urban, suburban, rural, tribal, workplaces, schools, universities, recreational clubs, Internet communities). The SCI is based on a theory presented by McMillan and Chavis (1986) that a sense of community is a perception with an affective component. The theory identifies four elements of a sense of community: membership, influence, meeting needs, and a shared emotional connection.

Framework Identity Metrics